To develop green building actively ，realizing building energy-saving requirements
Green building in the building energy-saving at the same time, also provide users with a comfortable indoor environment healthy and safety, represents the future of world architecture trends, prospects are very broad. To develop green building, is important for building energy saving requirements.
Because of its energy-saving green buildings, land, water, and materials, environmental protection, "four green" characteristics, is the current energy-saving one of the most effective ways to reduce emissions. At present, our country is in a period of rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, construction, new construction of the stock, climatic characteristics of geographic diversification, combined with traditional architecture culture in harmony with nature, green building has huge potential for development and a unique advantage.
At present, green building techniques relatively mature. EU scholars for 80 building greenhouse gas emissions reduction technology survey results show that the input and energy-saving, energy-efficient lighting technologies are almost all State building one of the most effective measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. According to estimates, achieve the same efficiency of energy saving building less than industrial inputs. On energy saving volume,, improved cold climate area of insulation and partition heating system, implemented min households heating measurement, in warm climate area improve refrigeration and ventilation energy efficiency, focusing on shade, and natural ventilation, and insulation measures, and improved cooking stoves, are is effective of energy saving measures; high energy efficiency than of device, and solar hot water device, and energy saving type household appliances and energy management system, also are is mature of building energy saving technology.
In recent years, China has actively organized "study on the key technology of green building", "study on key technologies of urban residential environment improvement and protection of" national science and technology support program, energy, water, land, materials and building environmental improvement has made a large number of research results, and has produced good results in a step by step.
Our country need to complete the span from energy-saving building to green building
On the basis of statistics,at present our country town have been built 28.5 hundred million energy-saving area accumulative total,which occupied 16.1% of the total town building.It means that 84% of the existing building are high energy building.During the operation process after the completion of the building,it consumed magnanimous energy in heating,air conditioner,ventilation,lighting and so on.China’s energy consumption of unit building area is higher 2-3 times than advanced countries with the same climatic conditions.The building area of the northern is 63 hundred million，occupied about 10% of China’s building area,however,occupied 40% of the total energy of the town building. Building energy-saving is especially important in the hot summer and cold winter region.According to estimates,the proportion of building running construction has increased from 10% in 1978 to 27.2% in 2003 in China’s total energy consumption,according to the experience of developed countries,this proportion will be gradually increased to 35%-40%.If including the energy consumption of building constrcution,the energy onsumption will account for 46.7% of the society’s.From the discharge side,when building 1 square meters of housing,it release 1.8 tons of carbon dioxide.Building carbon emissions accounted for more than 50% in the total carbon dioxide emissions of city.
According to whether the building is completed or not,the incremental work of building energy-saving can be divided into new energy-saving construction and renovation of existing energy-saving construction.For the new building,the Ministry of construction plan that the urban construction will achieve the design target of 50% energy-saving by the end of 2010,among them,the especially big city and part of big city take the lead in implementing the 65% energy-saving.For the existing building of transformation value,they are planed to be completed energy-saving transformation within three 5-year plan period from “eleven five”.If these goals can be achieved,by 2020,the building energy consumption will drop 50% than 2005,even calculating with the ratio of building energy consumption accounts for social energy consumption 28%,it also will boost the social total energy consumption decreased by 14% in conservative estimation.
Building energy-saving improve the living comfort
The building energy-saving mainly includes three parts,they are implement energy-saving standards of new construction ,energy-saving transformation of existing construction and reasonable development and utilization of renewable energy.For the northern region of hot summer and cold winter,nowadays the main work of energy-saving reformation,one is reform the mode of heating metering and charging,change “flat fee package,welfare heating””mess” to “central heating,household metering””who used,who pays;used more,pay more;no use,no pay”.It can motivate users to transfor comprehensively as long as this mechanism established.The other is improve the warm-keep function of circular construction,includes outer wall,roof,doors and windows use better material,technology and product with warm keep,heat insulation,better function.
The state issued to Shangdong province “eleven five”that the heating metering and energy-saving mission of existing residential building should be 1900 ten thousand square meters,however it complete 2120 ten thousand square meters actually.Energy consumption per unit area is drop about 25% among complete transformation of the housing.No change of the heat source,the room temperature is generally elevated 3-6 centigrade than before the transformation in heating period.It can still achieve the previous degree of comfort when the air-conditioning open less time.At the same time,because of the sound insulation effects of the thermal insulation material,the room sound insulation improve evidently and reduce indoor noise.According to estimation ,if the heating is adjustable in the northern region,and the user has the power to regulate the room temperature,no heat,can save 15% energy consumption;if it is measurable,the owner turn the heating off when leaving and turn on when come back later,it can save 30% energy consumption.On the base of the heat metering reform with increasing heat source,increase the heating area,expand the coverage of central heating,is equivalent to increasing heating capability,causes more residents to say goodbye to the small bunker,homemade heating as well as the coal haze even gas poisoning potential hazard,enjoys to the central heat supply security,is convenient and warm.The heating measurement reform and transformation of the housing construction energy conservation therefore is called the livelihood of the people project “the greenhouse” “the warm heart”.
Green building is energy-saving eco-building So-called “green construction” “the green”, is not refers to the three-dimensional afforestation, the roof garden in general sense, but represents one concept or the symbol, it is refers to total life cycle of the construction, maximum limit the nurse resources, protect the environment and reduced pollution, provides the health for the people, to be suitable with the highly effective use space, with nature harmonious paragenesis construction. The green construction will change people's life from certain significance, lets the housing life be more comfortable,healthy, energy saving, environmental protection, and further promotes the development of economics. If has purchased the true green housing, the water, the electricity, the heating, and the fuel gas expense may reduce many in each issue. In the future,heat valuation further tends to be reasonable, the green construction will compare the non-energy conservation construction, the energy consumption and the operating cost will save 1/2 to 3/4, down to if will add on again to resource tax, the carbon emissions tax saves reduces, that will be more considerable. Based on this, the reasonable development uses the renewable energy source - - solar energy, the wind energy, the shallow layer geothermy, the air conditioning waste-heat recovery, the waste water heat energy recycling, the air to be able, the biomass energy, may realize the construction zero energy consumption, zero emissions.
Spanning from energy-saving building to green building
Green building in the moment belongs to the field of market failure, green building incremental construction funds by the developers in the early period, however, owners enjoy the benefits of running and energy saving, thus generating positive economic externalities. Owner do not want to because of energy are more likely to select energy-efficient buildings, more reluctant to pay an extra development costs, developers do not have access to appropriate remuneration, reward, or relatively low remuneration and reward clear, or need to bear the additional costs and risks,therefore lack of development dynamics.
On the issue of green building evaluation and decision, building developers and consumers are with asymmetry of information seriously. Developer, knowing that green building will bring tremendous benefits to owners and society, but after weighing the cost, benefit and risk,they are often decided not to develop green building.Potential consumers does not understand the benefits of green building, they will only select products with low prices, and not willing to bear the extra costs of development and construction.
When there are economic externalities and information asymmetry, market mechanisms alone cannot promote the optimal allocation of resources and maximize social welfare, the Government should intervene appropriately. Development of green building is hard to be made mandatory standards like the development of energy-saving building. Because of green building has a very strong personality and pay more attention to local conditions, it integrated with the environment, building located environment vary widely, unable to develop a standard across the Board. Green building’s design and development also rely more on designer and developer’s creative play.Therefore required government introduce effective incentives, on the basis of making the development of access standards.